The municipality of Santana , located on the northern island of Madeira , was awarded in the month of June 2011 by UNESCO with the distinction of ” Biosphere Reserve ” , recognizing the richness of an ecosystem where it seeks to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use.
This reserve includes a land component , corresponding to the entire surface of the municipality emerged and also a marine component , which has a wide range of human and natural values , scenic , environmental and cultural interests of individuals locally, regionally , nationally and internationally.
The natural diversity is manifested by a floral and faunal wealth that incorporates a high degree of endemism and a full representation of the most relevant ecological units of Madeira , from the marine and coastal ecosystems to the high altitude vegetation , through Laurel Forest , Natural Heritage of UNESCO .
The Biosphere Reserve corresponds to the whole emerged area of the municipality of Santana and includes the marine area adjacent to the water depth of 200 m .
The total population residing in the area of the Biosphere Reserve is 7719 inhabitants , of whom 99 % live in the transition zone , 1 % in buffer zone and 0 % in core areas .
• Core Zones : are Sites of Community Importance , which are part of the Natura 2000 network and include areas of laurel forest and Mountain Massif Central and the Marine Reserve Rocha do Navio ;
• Buffer Zone : match use zones ruled by various instruments of territorial management and planning ;
• Transition Zone : consist primarily of land in rural , urban and urbanized public and private , with usage rules arranged through tools of planning activities and territory .
What is a Biosphere Reserve ?
Biosphere reserves are places recognized internationally by UNESCO , through the Man and the Biosphere Programme – MAB ( Man of English and the Biosphere ) that aims to reconcile the conservation of natural and cultural diversity with local economic and social development . The award of the prize of a World Biosphere Reserve is the international recognition not only of local property wealth , but also the activities and sectors , which steadily promote local sustainable development .
Biosphere Reserves seek to integrate three main functions that pass through the conservation of biodiversity and cultural heritage and sustainable economic development in terms of environmental and sociocultural and for logistical support in terms of research , monitoring , environmental education and training .
In this context , Biosphere Reserves are considered:
• Areas of excellence for the development of new models that allow better management of natural resources and human activities ;
• Support tools for the implementation of sustainable development at the local level ;
• Local learning .
Given the characteristics , natural values and management plans that integrate different areas , biosphere reserves are traditionally organized into three areas :
• Zone Core: is the main and most well-preserved area of the reserve , lying under various regimes of protection and where they develop research projects , monitoring and education .
• Buffer Zone : intermediate area that surrounds and protects the core zone , so that the activities developed here are properly regulated .
• Transition Zone : outermost area of the reserve and where the community , the authorities and cooperate actively in the scientific management of the reserve .
The coordination of the Biosphere Reserve and the entire process of planning and management is the responsibility of the municipality of Santana , who by now Earth City , gives effect to the implementation and management of actions and projects targeted in this area . It was precisely the municipality who assumed from the outset the intention of developing and creating Biosphere Reserve and gathered around this project all the necessary support .
The management of the Biosphere Reserve Santana Madeira , after approval of the city council and municipal council , focuses on so-called ” Management Unit ” composed by the Municipality of Santana , the Earth City , the Director of the Natural Park of Madeira , Dr. Paulo Oliveira and President of the Biologists and coordinator of the application for a World Biosphere Reserve , Dr. Domingos Abreu .
The three main functions of a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO .
This Management Unit has as main objective the management of environmental aspects and socio-economic development related to the scope declared by UNESCO and serve as element that coordinates and ensures that the functions and objectives of the Reserve are fulfilled .
The Management Unit takes into account the three major functions of reservation:
• Conservation in order to contribute to the conservation of landscapes , ecosystems , species and genetic variation ;
• Development in order to contribute to sustainable economic and socio-cultural and human that is ecologically sustainable ;
• Logistics in order to equip the city for research , monitoring , education and information exchange related to issues of conservation and developing local , national and global .
The Management Unit Santana Madeira Biosphere Reserve has defined in its action plan projects that target the proper functioning of the Reserve and the promotion of innovative activities and demonstrators at the level of sustainable development . Some of the projects have already had their achievement , such as : the creation of a network of centers Biosphere ; integration of the international project ” Smart Biosphere ” ; conducting training activities for guides and other staff in the area of tourism .
Center Rock Ship – Centro da Rocha do Navio
Located on the site of Rocha do Navio this was the first center of the biosphere to be created . It is a magical site that is of great natural value , scientific and cultural . This center strives for permanent connection that makes the ocean , was not located in the middle of a marine reserve , which highlights the interesting and rare core Zimbreiros ( Juniperus sp . ) Here presents the larger of which is knowledge
This center , located in fajã site Rocha do Navio , is accessible via the old footpath that starts along the road and down the steep cliff to the rocky beach , or on a quick trip cable car that offers a magnificent view on this idyllic spot . The use of the cable car is paid , there are several methods that include a trip or round trip and hire staff to assist in route.
Center Zino’s wood Rui Silva – Freira-da-madeira (Pterodroma madeira)
Located in Pico Megrim , the Center Zino’s Wood , Dr. Rui Silva is managed by the Natural Park of Madeira and joined the network of Biosphere centers , providing for such a space for dissemination of the contents of the reservation . This center , among its other valences , aims to publicize and promote the natural heritage of the surrounding area , which is noted for its rarity and status of protection to Zino’s wood.
Nun – of -wood ( Pterodroma madeira )
Essentially directed to disclosure of this seabird species , this space has a permanent exhibit , dynamic and interactive , comprising various chronological themed posters that illustrate the life cycle of this species only , and shall have a store merchandising environment and function space .
Center of Arco de São Jorge – Centro do Arco de São Jorge
Located in the village of Arco de São Jorge , in the Museum of Vine and Wine (Campo Experimental Viticulture ) is the third center to be created Biosphere . Will function as the promotion , information , product sales , merchandising , scientific research and environmental education and enhancement of agricultural component more precisely viticulture.
The Center is integrated into the building of the Museum , where visitors can see a restored old winery , meet various utensils used in viticulture , taste some regional products .
In outer space visitors can enjoy the gardens , leisure and rest in a close contact with the natural wealth and observe the various cycles of the vineyard ( pruning , shoots , foliage, flowers and fruit maturation , ripening , rest) .